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Sahih Bukhari Kitab Waktu-Waktu Sembahyang Sesi 24 Bab Melewatkan Zuhur Sehingga Ke `Asar May 30, 2014

Filed under: Hadith,Kitab Waktu Solat — visitor74 @ 10:11 pm

بَاب تَأْخِيرِ الظُّهْرِ إِلَى الْعَصْرِ

Bab 94 Melewatkan Zuhur Sehingga Ke `Asar

Masih tentang waktu zuhur. Bolehkah lewat sampai ke asar?
Hadis tentang masuk nya masuk asar – tentang panjang bayang melebihi dari batang – tidak menepati syarat Bukhari. Kerana syarat Bukhari amat ketat.

Ulama memberikan pendapat kenapakah Imam Bukhari memasukkan bab ini.

Ada yang mengatakan tujuan Imam Bukhari adalah kerana hendak menolak hujah tentang adanya waktu mushtarak. Iaitu kongsi waktu antara Zuhr dan Asar. Ianya waktu mukmal – hampa – kerana tidak mendapat pahala kalau solat di waktu itu. Oleh itu, apabila Imam Bukhari menggunakan perkataan إِلَى, bermaksud dia hendak kata, tidak ada perkongsian waktu antara zuhur dan asar. Apabila habis sahaja zuhur, terus masuk asar.

Hadis dibawah terjadi semasa di Madinah – bukan masa musafir. Tapi Nabi buat jamak. Jamak zuhur-asar dan maghrib-isyak. Kenapa begitu? Mengikut mereka yang bermazhab Hanafiah, mereka mengatakan bahawa Nabi solat jamak soori, iaitu hujung waktu zuhur dan awal asar – bermakna, masih lagi dalam waktunya masing-masing. Jamak haqiqi yang kita selalu amalkan di Malaysia ini tidak ada dalam Hanafi. Oleh itu, mereka tafsir hadis ini ikut mazhab mereka.

Ada yang mengatakan tajuk bab kali ini adalah sebagai Tarjamah syaarihah iaitu untuk menjelaskan hadis bawah. Untuk huraikan apakah maksud yang hendak disampaikan dalam hadis di bawah. Sebab Nabi telah melakukan solat jamak di Madinah. Takut orang keliru. Adakah Nabi jamak takdim atau ta’khir? Kepada mereka yang bermazhab Hanafi, Nabi dalam hadis ini buat jamak soori, mereka kata. Kalau begini, pendapat ini mengheret kepada mazhab mereka.

Ada yang mengatakan bahawa tujuan ini adalah, sebelum ini telah disebut tentang awal zuhur. Sekarang tentang hujung zuhur pula. Iaitu hendak menyatakan bahawa waktu zuhur itu sampai masuk asar. Dan masuk asar itu khilaf pula.

Atau beliau hendak menceritakan bahawa waktu zuhur pun ada hujung waktunya seperti waktu yang lain. Sebab ada yang kata zuhur sampai masuk maghrib. Itu pendapat yang pelik sikit. Jadi hadis ini dibawa untuk tunjuk Nabi buat jamak zuhur dan asar dalam waktu salah satunya. Mungkin Imam Bukhari hendak mengatakan bahawa jamak yang dilakukan dalam hadis ini adalah ta’khir. Kerana dia letak dalam tajuk itu ila. Itu adalah tanda bahawa zuhur itu ada hujungnya.

Dan ada dalam hadis, riwayat Ibn Abbas yang lain ada menunjukkan bahawa solat jamak yang dilakukan adalah jamak ta’khir. Ini adalah kerana pernah satu hari Ibn Abbas berceramah sampai lepas waktu maghrib. Manusia sekelilingnya sudah mula bising-bising. Sampai ada yang tegur dia berhadapan. Maka dia kata – adakah kamu hendak mengajar aku Sunnah? Maka dia terus menyebut kejadian seperti yang ada dalam hadis di bawah. Maka, kalau kita lihat perbuatan Ibn Abbas itu, dia telah lepas waktu maghrib. Maka, tentunya mereka akan solat jamak ta’khir maghrib dan isyak.

Ada yang kata tujuan hadis ini adalah kerana beliau hendak mengatakan bahawa solat jamak boleh dilakukan tanpa musafir.

Ada pula yang kata tujuan Imam Bukhari buat tajuk ini adalah kerana hendak membela Bani Umayyah. Waktu itu, ada yang caci mereka kata mereka sengaja lewatkan solat. Waktu itu adalah zaman Abbasiysah dan banyak banyak caci Bani Umayyah untuk dapat duit. Imam Bukhari tak suka macam itu. Tidak suka dengan cara mereka mencaci-cari. Mereka pun ada hujah juga. Bukankah dalam hadis ini Nabi pun pernah melewatkan solat zuhur? Samada dalam bentuk jamak soori atau jamak haqiqi. Jadi, tidaklah pemimpin-pemimpin bani Umayyah itu melakukan kesilapan yang besar sampaikan mereka dicaci dengan teruk. Bukanlah Imam Bukhari hendakkan duit dari Bani Umayyah kerana Bani Umayyah telah tiada pada zamannya. Jangan kita salah sangka pula dengan mengatakan bahawa Imam Bukhari pun buat perkara yang sama macam mereka yang mencaci Bani Abbasiah kerana hendakkan wang.

510 – حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو النُّعْمَانِ قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا حَمَّادٌ هُوَ ابْنُ زَيْدٍ عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ دِينَارٍ عَنْ جَابِرِ بْنِ زَيْدٍ عَنْ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ صَلَّى بِالْمَدِينَةِ سَبْعًا وَثَمَانِيًا الظُّهْرَ وَالْعَصْرَ وَالْمَغْرِبَ وَالْعِشَاءَ فَقَالَ أَيُّوبُ لَعَلَّهُ فِي لَيْلَةٍ مَطِيرَةٍ قَالَ عَسَى

510. Telah menceritakan kepada kami Abu An Nu’man berkata, telah menceritakan kepada kami Hammad -yaitu Ibnu Zaid- dari ‘Amru bin Dinar dari Jabir bin Zaid dari Ibnu ‘Abbas, bahawa Nabi shallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam pernah melaksanakan salat di Madinah sebanyak tujuh dan lapan rakaat, iaitu shalat Zhuhur, ‘Ashar, Maghrib dan ‘Isya’.” Ayyub berkata (kepada Jabir bin Zaid), “Barangkali hal itu ketika malam dan siang yang hujan.” Ibnu Abbas berkata, “Boleh jadi.”

Dalam hadis ini, menceritakan Nabi dan sahabat solat jamak tanpa musafir – iaitu dilakukan di Madinah – mukim Nabi. Zuhur telah dijamak dengan Asar dan Maghrib dengan Isyak. Tidak ada sebab atau alasan tertentu ianya dilakukan. Dilakukan semata-mata untuk memudahkan umatnya. Cuma jangan dijadikan kebiasaan. Nabi pun tidak buat selalu. Kalau dijadikan kebiasaan, dah jadi syiah pula. Mereka sentiasa solat jamak setiap kali solat.

Hadis ini tidak berapa jelas. Ada yang lebih jelas dalam Sunan Tirmizi. Dalam itu disebut Nabi buat solat jamak itu tanpa ada ‘ketakutan atau hujan’. Nabi lakukan begitu supaya ‘tidak menyusahkan umatnya’. Jadi boleh untuk solat jamak dalam mukim kalau ada keperluan. Cuma jangan dijadikan kebiasaan. Contohnya, kepada doktor, kepada mereka yang kerja jaga lalu lintas, kepada askar dan juga kepada mereka yang tersangkut dalam jalan jem dan sebagainya. Kena yang munasabah sikit. Tidak perlu masuk Syiah untuk dapat kebolehan untuk menjamakkan solat. Kerana dalam sunni pun ada juga.

Kepada mereka yang tidak menerima pendapat yang mengatakan boleh jamak tanpa sebab, mereka akan takwil hadis ini. Kerana kepada mereka, kalau nak solat jamak, mesti kena ada sebab. Tapi kalau kita lihat hadis ini, tidak dinyatakan apakah sebab baginda melakukan sedemikian. Yang pertanyaan perawi itu (Ayyub berkata (kepada Jabir bin Zaid), “Barangkali hal itu ketika malam dan siang yang hujan.” Ibnu Abbas berkata, “Boleh jadi.”) adalah satu andaian sahaja.

Berbagai sebab dijadikan alasan kenapa Nabi solat dengan cara sedemikian pada hari itu. Antaranya, mereka kata Nabi solat jamak di Madinah itu adalah kerana hujan. Itulah yang dikatakan oleh Ayyub al Sakhtiani. Kerana kalau hujan, sahabat susah nak datang ke masjid. Jadi Nabi jamak takdim terus dengan mereka yang telah ada di masjid. Itu untuk memudahkan mereka – tidak perlu nak datang lagi untuk waktu asar. Ini juga adalah pendapat Imam Syafie. Tapi pendapat ini tertolak dengan kata-kata Ibn Abbas dalam hadis yang diriwayatkan oleh Tirmizi. Iaitu apabila beliau telah menjamakkan solat maghrib semasa beliau berceramah. Ibn Abbas kata Nabi solat jamak itu dilakukan tanpa ketakutan atau hujan. Apabila ditanya kenapa baginda buat macam itu, Ibn Abbas kata untuk memudahkan umatnya. Jadi, sedikit lemah kalau pendapat mengatakan Nabi buat jamak itu kerana hujan.

Kedua, mereka kata kerana hari itu mendung. Oleh kerana itu tidak jelas samada waktu asar atau zuhur – tak nampak matahari. Mereka sangka ianya waktu zuhur. Jadi mereka solat zuhur. Selepas itu, apabila selesai solat zuhur, terus langit cerah dan nampak sudah masuk asar. Maka mereka terus solat asar. Takwilan ini juga tertolak. Sebab tak kemas. Ianya boleh digunakan kalau waktu itu siang sahaja. Bagaimana pula bila malam pun Nabi buat juga?

Ketiga, kemungkinan hari itu Nabi sakit. Ini pendapat Imam Ahmad antaranya yang mengatakan sedimikian. Imam nawawi pun terima pendapat ini. Takwilan ini juga lemah. Walaupun orang besar juga yang berpendapat begitu. Kerana jelas dalam riwayat Ibn Abbas ini bahawa baginda solat berjemaah ‘bersama’ sahabat. Tak mungkin semua jemaah sahabat sakit sekali. Takkan nak ikut Nabi yang sakit. Takkan kalau imam kita sakit, seluruh jemaah kena ikut imam itu.

Keempat. Jamak itu adalah jamak soori, bukan jamak haqiqi. Ini pendapat Qurtubi dan lain-lain. Imam Nawawi kata pendapat ini karut semata-mata. Kerana ia terlalu bercanggah dengan zahir hadis.

Kelima. Shah waliyullah mengatakan hadis diatas adalah kerana waham dan tasarruf perawi. Kekeliruan dan pendapat perawi sahaja. Tidak ada Nabi buat begitu sebenarnya. Apa yang berlaku adalah Nabi telah menjamak solat itu ‘dalam perjalanan’ (musafir) dalam Perang Tabuk. Jadi, sebenarnya musafir juga. Bukanlah solat jamak itu dilakukan di Madinah. Tapi tafsiran seperti ini akan menghilangkan kepercayaan manusia kepada hadis sahih. Shah waliyullah menggunakan riwayat Ibn Abbas juga. Yang mengatakan bahawa Nabi solat jamak dalam perjalanan Perang Tabuk. Ini ada disebut dalam Sahih Muslim. Jadi, Shah Waliyullah menganggap hadis di atas tidak mahfuz. Kalau tidak mahfuz, itu bermaksud hadis di atas tidak sahih. Bukan tidak sahih dari sanad, tapi tidak sahih dari matan. Tambahan pula, hadis di atas sebut tujuh dan lapan. Sepatutnya lapan dan tujuh. Jadi itu sudah menunjukkan kelemahan perawi.

Tapi ada juga yang tidak menerima pendapat Shah Waliyullah itu. Yang dia bawa riwayat Ibn Abbas itu adalah kisah lain iaitu semasa Perang Tabuk. Yang hadis di atas adalah kisah lain. Iaitu memang Nabi solat jamak di Madinah. Andaian Shah Waliyullah sahaja yang ianya adalah waham perawi. Yang disebut tujuh sebelum disebut lapan itu pun tidak salah dalam penggunaan bahasa Arab.

Ulama mentakwil hadis di atas kerana mereka berpendapat jamak adalah satu rukhsah atas keperluan sesuatu sebab. Seperti musafir dan sebagainya. Jadi kalau bukan dalam musafir, mereka susah nak terima. Maka mereka mencari dan mengagak apakah ilat Nabi buat jamak dalam Madinah itu. Itulah sebabnya bermacam-macam pendapat diberikan sebagai ilat kenapa Nabi buat begitu.

Pengajaran yang boleh diambil dari hadis di atas:

  1. Ada ketikanya Nabi melewatkan zuhur sehingga ke hujung waktunya. Masih sah lagi kalau solat waktu itu. Selalunya Nabi akan buat di awal waktu.
  2. Ada ketikanya Nabi akan menjamak ketika berada di Madinah ketika tidak pergi ke mana-mana. Inilah pendapat Bukhari tentang hadis ini.
  3. Kalau ketika tidak apa-apa sebab pun boleh jamakkan solat, apatah lagi kalau ada sebab. Itulah kesenangan yang diberi dalam Islam. Tidak perlu risau. Contohnya doktor bedah yang sibuk. Orang sakit, dalam jem jalanraya dan sebagainya.
  4. Keharusan melakukan jamak ta’khir. Jamak takdim hadis lain. Kalau jamak pun boleh, Qasar lagi boleh sebab kebolehan melakukan qasar ada dalam Quran.

 

Lompat ke syarah hadis yang seterusnya

 

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Seerah Episode 10: Life of the Prophet – Birth of the Messenger Part 2

Filed under: Seerah — visitor74 @ 7:13 pm

There are riwayats of miraculous things that happened during the birth of the prophet. Those are contested by the ulamaks because the issue of the authenticity of the narrations. Nonetheless we are giving it here because some of the scholars do include it in their series of seerah.

— Miracles that occurred during the birth of the Prophet

During the night of the birth, it was said that the whole Palace of Qisra (of the Persian Empire) literally shook. 14 balconies of the Palace of Qisra broke & fell off.  People of Persia were Zoroastrian. They worshipped a sacred fire that had been burning continuously for a thousand year, and it never gone out. But that fire was extinguished that night without any explanation. Water levels from the River of Tigris became extremely low so that the irrigation didn’t reach the farms.  All across the region, there was a bright light shining in the night sky.

There’s a man named Mubidaan, a waazir (minister), who is an influential person on the court of Persian Empire had a dream. In his dream, a large older camel was outrunning a fast young horse. Mubidaan also sees in his dream that the Tigris River stopped flowing altogether. Because of that, Mubidaan was worried.

— The Persian Emperor gathered all of his counsels. “Do you know why I gathered you altogether? It’s because the central fire that we worship was extinguished last night. The balconies of my palace broke & fell.” Mubidaan steps up to recount his dream.

Emperor of Persia asks Mubidaan (one of his roles was to interpret dreams) what his dream meant. Mubidaan said: “Something interesting is happening in the direction of Arabs.”

— Emperor sends a man to direction of Arabia to see what’s going on. That person finds someone on the way (reported name: Abdul Masih of tribe of Al Ghasan, bordered the Arabs in As-Sham)

Abdul Masih tells the Persian emperor’s messenger that for the last few days/weeks, almost every leader of every tribe in Syria came to him asking the very same question, “What’s going on in Al-Hejaz?” Some people are hearing things, some are dreaming.
In another narration, Abdul Masih calls on Satih, who was knowledgeable on Tawrut & Injeel & knows a lot about Prophets of the Past. Satih tells Abdul Masih that the Prophet of the Last Times is born. Satih goes on to say that according to the prophecies, the reign of the Qisra will see 14 more emperors before it comes to an end. Abdul Masih follows the Persian messenger back to Persian Empire to tell the emperor about the 14 kingdoms:  “In 4 years, we will go through 10 emperors.”

That’s exactly what happened. The last emperor of the Qisra dynasty was Yazjajdird, who fought the Muslim armies later on. His palace was completely destroyed. The dynasty of Qisra ruled for 3,164 years. It ended during the Khilafa of Uthman (ra).
The very first emperor of Persia from the Qisra dynasty was Khaiyummart, bin Umain bin Lawad bin Saam bin Nuh (as). It’s amazing, the first emperor of Persia was the great-great grandson of Nuh (as)!

— Some monks & rabbis talked about the coming of the “Prophet of the Last Times”

2 or 3 generations before the birth of the Prophet, some leaders from as-Sham came to Makkah to interview different leaders of Quryash, trying to figure out from whose family the Prophet will come from. Two Quryash leaders that were interviewed were Abd-Shams & Abd-Munaf, who are from the children of Qusay. Abd-Munaf is one of the great-great grandfathers of Prophet.
One of the priests from as-Sham tells Abd-Munaf, “Allah has given me the understanding of certain things, so listen to me carefully. Oh Arabs, you are in time period of a break, where you’re on pause. Nothing important is happening right now, but it will happen. Right now you have no knowledge. You’re ignorant, desert-dwelling, camel-riding simple people. We outsiders don’t look at you with respect. However, people of great understanding are going to come from your generations. They will go out & seek great types of knowledge. The idols that you worship – your progeny will come & break the idols with their hands. They will fight the great empires that exist today (the Persian and Roman empires). They will defeat them & inherit their wealth.”

The priest also recites some poetry:  “Understand that there is a life here after that remains for eternity. That is where you should hope for. The person who lives here, from this place, will leave his home (talking about Hijrah). He will be a Prophet that will be guided by God. He will guide people to that which is true. He will reject the idols that you worship. He will have nothing to do with the worship of idols. He will worship one Lord, one God. Then Allah will give him death in the best of places (Madina). Right now, the virtue of that place is lost on people. This is being witnessed by the sky. Our books tell us that this man will have the quality of trustworthiness.

“He will inherit the rule from this prophet (Abu Bakr). When he will make a decision, he will speak the truth. He will return the rights to the people. He will not do anything that is unintelligent, nor will he be a pushover.

“After him, a man will inherit the rule who will be very focused (Umar bin al-Khattab). He will be a man of great experience & great honor. He will be a man of great hospitality.”

The priest also talked about Uthman (ra) & his qualities, & the fact that he will be assassinated. He also spoke of the other kings that will come from the Umayyad dynasty & the fitnas that will come upon the ummah.

— Shuaib narrates from his father, who narrates from his father (all three generations are Sahaba). The grandfather was passing by a place named Dhahran. He met a rahib, a Christian monk named Ayisa, from the people of Syria. Ayisa was very well known for his teachings & knowledge of the teachings and lives of the past Prophets. He was also well known in Makkah for his humility and generosity.

Ayisa had confined himself to a church most of the time for worship. But once a year, he’d leave the monastery to go to Makkah to buy the supplies & visits the people in Makkah. Whenever he visited Makkah, he’d say same thing to leaders there:
“People of Makkah, listen. You’re very close to a child being born amongst you. The Arabs will follow his deen. He will rule over the non-Arabs. This is his time and his era. Whoever finds him follows him and believes in him, will find himself in a strong position. Whoever finds him, gets to interact with him, but confronts/argues with him, will be in the wrong. I didn’t leave the land of peace & tranquility & comfort & luxury (As Sham, was a very prosperous place, which was ruled by a kings of Gassam) and come to the land of hunger, starvation, civil unrest, and economic uncertainty except to find that Prophet. I read about him & studied about him & know he’s going to be here. That’s why I keep coming back to Makkah.”

Whenever every single time a child is born in Makkah, Ayisa would go there to find out more if that’s the Prophet. He’d ask for the infant’s description. He wouldn’t disclose what he was looking for. One time, he shares the markers of what he’s looking for in the Prophet because he was getting older & wasn’t sure that he’d live to witness the birth of the Prophet, so he wanted to pass on that knowledge.

A Makkan man who was given the markers (what he was looking for) by Ayisa goes to Ayisa’s monastery to tell him of a child that was born recently. Ayisa already told the man that the child will be born on Monday, given prophethood on Monday, and die on Monday.

Ayisa asks what his name is. His name is Muhammad. Ayisa asks what family he was born into. He was born into family of Banu Hashim; Ayisa told the man that he himself wished that the Prophet would be born to Hashim. Because it is a good family. Ayisa said 3 things are coming together:

  • “I saw the star in the sky – the same star that shines every time a prophet is born.”
  • “He was born in a Monday.”
  • “His name is Muhammad.”

Ayisa asks to be taken to the child. Once Ayisa reaches there, he says another sign that this is the Prophet is that the child will suffer for 3 days. He will have discomfort in drinking milk for 3 days. An evil jinni knew that this was the Messenger, so he would stuck his finger in the mouth of the prophet so that he would have trouble nursing. In a narration, an angel came and protected Prophet.

— Another sign – simple fact that many monks & rabbis showed up to Makkah. They are very knowledgeable people. They saw the same star that shined in the sky when Musa was born. And other prophets born.

Some Jewish rabbis came to some Arab leaders of the tribes of Aus & Khazraj in Yathrib and said, “qad-dzahabat. Qad-dzahabat. It has left. It has left. Nubuwwah (prophethood) has left Banu Israel. We saw a light emanating from Makkah. We saw a star shining in the direction of Makkah. It tells us that the Prophet of the Last time has come amongst the Arabs. It supposed to come from us but it has left us. Prophethood has left our lineage. Qad-dzahabat.”

Some rabbis said that this child carries several signs of Prophethood:

  • Muhammad is yateem, an orphan. His father is dead.
  • On his back, between his shoulder blades, there’s a birthmark that’s like a cluster of moles. There’s hairs on the mole. This is the seal of Prophethood.

One of these Jewish rabbis goes to Makkah asking about this child born that was on this night. He goes around asking which family recently gave birth. He goes to the home of Aminah. “Did you give birth recently?”
He sees that Muhammad has the nur of nubuwwah. He also sees the birthmark on the infant, & confirms that this child indeed will be a Prophet. The rabbi says that he hopes to live to see the day Muhammad receives Prophethood so he can come and believe in his message.

Many of the monks & rabbis predicted according to the text that the child will be called Ahmed. Before this, we already learnt that there’s a narration that tells that Aminah preferred to call her son Ahmed.

The rabbi said: “No one in history will be envied as much as the child will be. No one in history will be as attacked as he will be. This child will not live to see the age of 70. He will die at the age of 60 some odd years. This will be the average age of his ummah.”

 

Link to the next episode

 

May we strengthen our love for the prophet. In sha Allah.

http://www.qalaminstitute.org/2012/01/seerah-life-of-the-prophet-birth-of-the-messenger-pt-2/

 

 

Seerah Episode 9. Seerah – Life of the Prophet: Birth of the Messenger Part 1 May 29, 2014

Filed under: Seerah — visitor74 @ 6:18 pm

— Significance of Monday

There is a narration in Sahih Muslim where the Prophet (saw) was asked by an Arabi (Bedouin), “What do you advise about fasting on Mondays?” Prophet replied, “That is the day on which I was born, and that is the day on which divine revelation was revealed to me.”
The Prophet was born on a Monday
He was given Prophethood on a Monday
During Hijrah, he left Makkah on a Monday
He arrived in Medina on Monday
He passed away on Monday
— Prophet was born during the month of Al Rabi’al-awwal in the Year of the Elephant.

Almost consensus opinion that the month was Al Rabi’al-awwal in the Year of the Elephant, but no concensus on the date.

Different narrations give different dates – some say he was born on the 2nd or 8th or 12th or 17th day
Most narrations agree on the 12th day of al-Rabi’l-awwal
He was born 50-55 days after the Invasion of the Elephants
In the Gregorian calendar, the Prophet’s birth occurred on April 25, in the year 571

Lineage of prophet was very pure. No one was born out of wedlock.

— Miraculous events surrounding the Prophet’s birth

From the day she became pregnant with Muhammad to the day she gave birth, Aminah never felt any pain or discomfort during her pregnancy & labor. Now this is a miracle because those that goes through pregnancy knows how hard it was.

Aminah’s dreams
In one dream, nur (light) was coming out of Aminah’s womb & it was lighting up palaces in as-Sham (Syria)
In other dreams, she was being addressed by an entity, most probably angels (most likely Jibril): “You are carrying the leader of this Ummah. When he arrives to this earth, say, ‘I put him in the protection of Allah, may Allah protect him from the jealous, may he be put in the company of good people, may he be put in the confidence of leaders of the devout, may he arrive to this earth without any adversity, until he witnesses that which he is to witness. The sign of his birth will be, when he arrives on this earth, along with him a light will come – a light that will fill the palaces of as-Sham. When he is born, name him Muhammad, because his name in the Tawrut was Ahmed. The people of the heavens and the people of the earth praise him. His name in the Injeel was Ahmed. His name in the Qur’an will be Muhammad.”

There were 2 women present during birth, As-Shifa & mother of Uthman bin Abi al-Aas, who were assisting Aminah in childbirth. She said, When Aminah gave birth, mother of Athman was blinded by the nur. She looked up and could see the stars coming closer as if to witness the birth of the Messenger. The stars were so close that As-Shifa was afraid that the stars might fall on her.

When the Prophet was born, at that very moment someone said, “May Allah have mercy on you.”

These narration were contested. So it is not very strong.

— Before giving birth, Aminah called her father-in-law (Abdul Mutallib) to tell him about her dreams. Abdul Mutallib says, just stay calm & steadfast

After Prophet was born, Abdul Mutallib was called for, since he’s the male guardian of the child. He was informed about her experience. He wanted to take the newborn Muhammad to Kab’ah & make dua.
Aminah tells her father-in-law that the child needs to be named Muhammad. Other narration says that it was Abdul Muttalib who gave the name Muhammad and actually Aminah preferred the name Ahmad. So that’s why the Prophet has both names.

Abdul Mutallib took his new grandson to the Baytullah & makes dua:
“I praise Allah for giving me this beautiful child, who is blessed and noble. Already in the lap of his mother, he is already become a leader of other children. I put him in the protection of Allah who is strong and owns the foundations, so that he can grow up to become a strong young man. I put him in the protection of Allah from anyone who will have hatred for him. If anyone tries to approach him (with malicious intentions), may Allah take his eyes. May Allah take away his ability to speak.”
Abdul Mutallib points to the child & says, “You are the one who has been mentioned in the sacred texts of God. Your name Ahmed has been mentioned throughout generations and throughout time.”

Abdul Mutallib threw a great feast on the 7th day of the Prophet’s birth (Aqiqah)

This practice was one of the true practices inherited from Ibrahim (as)

— The name “Muhammad” was very rare at the time

Some scholars say that the Prophet was the first person ever to named “Muhammad”, but that’s incorrect. That’s only the saying of qussas (story tellers).  There were already some people who were named Muhammad before the Prophet’s birth, but they were rare

The name comes from the root hamd, which means the “one who is repeatedly praised”
Ahmad – “Very abundantly praised”
Muhammad – “amazing things are constantly praised”
He was praised even before he received Prophethood, because he used to be known as “As Sadiq Al Amin” around Makkah (The Trustworthy One)

— There’s a Hadith in which the Prophet says, “I have many names. I am Muhammad and I am Ahmed. I am al-Mahi (the one who removes/eradicates); Allah eradicated kuffar through me. I am al-Hashir (the one who gathers); people have gathered at my feet to take their deen. I am al-Akib (one who comes last).” “I am al-Khatim (the seal of Prophethood). I am the Prophet of Mercy. I am the Prophet who will establish & defend the deen.”

— Allah addresses Muhammad by many names & titles in the Qur’an.

Hasan bin Thabit, the personal poet of the Prophet, said, “Muhammad’s name was split from the name of Allah, so that he would be honored. Allah is the one who is praised. Allah is Mahmud, and he (the Prophet) is Muhammad.”

Practicality in learning seerah is very important. We studied seerah so that we can emulate the Prophet. One of the issue discussed about prophet’s birth is about his circumcision. There are narration that says that he was circumcised when he was borned – he was borned already circumcised. This is so that noone sees his private part. But there’s also a narration that says that he was circumcised by Abdul Muttalib himself. If that is the case, then there’s no other people that see his private part.

Some asked the question about celebrating mawlid (birth of the Prophet)? Some says ok but some not. The right way is that, we can acknowledge the date of the mawlid when it arrives but we should not overdoing it. There’s no specific things to do and no special reward regarding doing Ibadah on the day. Just announce it would be enough. Like announcing in Ramadan that it’s the day of Badr. May be, you want to hold classes teaching about the seerah of the prophet and that’s all. No more.

Link to the next episode

http://www.qalaminstitute.org/2012/01/seerah-life-of-the-prophet-birth-of-the-messenger-pt-1/

 

Seerah episode 8: The Prophet’s Parents May 27, 2014

Filed under: Seerah — visitor74 @ 12:20 am

— Hashim ibn Abd Manaf is Muhammad’s (saw) great-grandfather & the father of Abdul Mutallib (birth name is Shaybah)

— Hashim had assumed the responsibility of providing water to the hujjaj & cleaning up the Ka’bah. This was after a period of civil unrest (2 families feud over custodianship of Ka’bah)

Hashim was extremely wealthy & a leader of Banu Abd Manaf. He was also known as a man of great respect & culture.
He was the first one to go beyond just serving water to the hujjaj; in the past, they only serve water to the hujjaj. He also went on to serve full meals to them. Imagine the high cost to provide for all that food to all the pilgrims. This shows how wealthy he was.

— Hashim’s actual name is Amr

He’s called Hashim (pulverizer, one who crushes) because he would serve crushed bread into a type of broth to the hujjaj. He’d wait until the bread was baked, then he’d crush the bread with his own hands & prepare the meals for the hujjaj himself. When people saw this, they started calling him, Hashim.

— Hashim is also credited with establishing an economy in Makkah, by having a business caravan travel during the winter & one in the summer (“rihlata ashshita-iwassayf” as mentioned in the Quran)

— As a young man, Hashim traveled to Sham for business & stopped by in Yathrib.

He noticed the stark difference in weather between Makkah (very hot, desert) & Yathrib (cooler, agriculture town, grows dates in abundance)
Hashim sees a woman named Salma bint Amr (from Banu Najr) in Yathrib & married her.

During Hijra to Madinah, Prophet Muhammad didn’t immediately get into Madinah, but first stopped at Quba, just outside Yathrib. This is where the first mosque was built. Quba was a suburb of Yathrib. Prophet stayed there because his great uncle & other uncles lived there, who were related to Salma. So we know that the Prophet has families over there.

After a while, Hashim continued on to business to as-Sham. Salma, who had become pregnant, stays in Yathrib. Hashim ends up falling ill & died in Gaza (modern day Palestine)
When news reached her that her husband died, Salma knew that Hashim’s family will come to take the baby to Makkah, especially if it’s a son (since he’ll be carrying on the name).
— Salma’s afraid to let go of her first child, so she doesn’t send the news back to Makkah that she’s expecting.

She gave birth to a boy named Shaybah (“old man”) because he was born with some white hair, like an old man. This baby is the Prophet’s grandfather.

Hashim had 4 sons & 5 daughters in total.
— Shaybah grew up in Yathrib. As he grows older, there are rumors that Hashim actually had a son with a wife from Yathrib. These rumors come about from the business travelers that goes through Yathrib.

This news starts to spread among Hashim’s family in Makkah. One of Hashim’s brothers (Shaybah’s uncle) went to Yathrib to retrieve the boy & to take him to Makkah.

When that uncle which is Al Mutallib arrives in Yathrib & laid eyes on Shaybah, al Mutallib started to cry, because Shaybah looks like his late father, Hashim. Al Mutallib hugged his nephew & puts him on his camel. “I need to take you back to Makkah with me.”

Shaybah initially refused to go to Makkah unless they get permission from his mother.

Uncle Al Mutallib said to Shaybah’s mother, Salma: “Send the boy back with me to Makkah. He needs to assume the property & the responsibilities of his father. That’s his birthright. Also understand that your son from his father’s side comes from a very blessed family; we’re the inhabitants of the Haram. Let him live near God’s House.”
Salma very reluctantly releases her son Shaybah to the care of his uncle
Shaybah to Makkah, and Al Mutallib trained Shaybah of his father’s responsibilities of the Ka’bah.

After some time, Uncle Al Mutallib travels to Yemen & died on the way over.

— How did Shaybah become known as Abdul Mutallib?
No one in Makkah knew of Hashim having a son. When Al Mutallib came back to Makkah with a young boy on his camel, the Makkans assumed that Al Mutallib purchased a slave boy. So they called the boy Abdul Mutallib (slave of Mutallib).

Al Mutallib tried to correct them saying that this is “Ibn Akhi” (brother’s son), and he’s brought his nephew home. But the name stucked.

— After Al Mutallib’s passing, Shaybah has to assume both late father’s and Uncle Al Mutallib’s responsibilities.

Shaybah had another uncle named Nowfaal, who usurps all the wealth & responsibilities of the family. He was the younger brother of Hashim & Al Mutallib – had a bit of an inferiority complex. Before this, he lives behind the shadow of his brothers.

Now that his older brothers are dead, Nowfaal pushes Abdul Mutallib out of the family & takes over the responsibilities that belong to his nephew.
Abdul Mutallib goes to the other family heads of the Quraysh.
Abdul Mutallib said: “We have an issue here. You knew my father, Hashim. You knew my uncle, Al Mutallib. All of you guys had really good relations. You know that my father chose my uncle, & my uncle chose me. I have another uncle who’s taking over – he’s not trustworthy. He’s caused a lot of problems in our family & he’ll cause problems for you. It’d be in your best interests to be on my side & give the responsibility back to who it belongs.”
The family heads reply, “We don’t want to get involved. This is between you & Nowfaal. This is a family affair.”

Abdul Mutallib wrote a letter to his maternal uncles in Yathrib. The eldest of his uncles responded and came to Makkah along with 80 warriors on horses.

When they arrived, Abdul Mutallib said to them: “Come, eat some food, rest, & in the morning we’ll handle this.” But the Uncle said: “Absolutely not. I’m going to see this uncle of yours right now.”

Abdul Mutallib’s uncle finds Nowfaal sitting near the Ka’bah with other family heads. He drew his sword. “Give my nephew back what belongs to him, or I’ll kill you right here right now.”
Nowfaal can’t defend himself & says, “Fine, I’ll back down. I’ll give him back his wealth & his responsibilities.”

Abdul Mutallib resumes his tasks. Uncle goes back to Yathrib.
But this isn’t over.
— Nowfaal still really wants be the caretaker of the Ka’bah & all, so he approaches other family tribes of the Quraysh & aligns himself with them. “Why don’t you guys join me & we can rise up against Banu Hashim. This way you can be the most powerful family in Makkah.”

Nowfaal goes to other families as well to get their support
But all the other families refuse. They’d rather ally themselves with Shaybah’s family in Yathrib. Abdul Mutallib gains a lot of support without even trying.

Banu Hashim is the most powerful family of Quraysh (most powerful tribe of Arabia), so Abdul Mutallib is seen as the powerful leader of the Quraysh. His leadership is universally respected across Arabia

— Abdul Mutallib & his children by 5 wives
He had 10 sons. Some books say he had 11 or 13 sons. 10 is agreed by all to be the minimum.
While he dug up the well of Zamzam, he supplicated, “Oh Allah, if you bless me with 10 sons, then I’ll sacrifice one of them for Your Sake” (oath – nadr)

Sons
Al Harith
Al Zubayr
Abu Talib
Abdullah (father of Muhammad)
Hamza
Abdul Uzza (aka Abu Lahab)
Al Gheedak
Al Muqaowwim
Seefar
Al Abbas
Abdul Kabal, Hajal (?) – maybe servants or adopted

6 daughters
Barrah
Atika
Safia
Arway
Umaiyma
Umm al Hakim – albino

Albinism was seen as freak of nature. But it helps to know that an aunt of Muhammad (saw) was an albino, and this was not a condition of evil as according to old wives’ tale. We also note that saidina Hussain (grandson of Muhammad) was a major stutterer. Physical defect is not something to be cried about.

— Abdullah
Mother of Abdullah was Fatima, the grandmother of Muhammad. Abdullah was one of the youngest, but also one of the most beloved, well-behaved, & intelligent of Abdul Mutallib’s children. As a child, Abdullah would be walking around with his dad on his shoulders around Makkah.

Abdul Mutallib was a very spiritual & devout man. He wanted to fulfill his oath but nervous about telling his sons about this oath about sacrificing one of his sons, but his sons understood. They drew straws. Straw fell on Abdullah, Abdul Mutallib’s most beloved child.

— Abdul Mutallib picks up his son & a knife to sacrifice Abdullah, who was only a young boy.
Other members of the family & leaders of the Quraysh are nervous. Mother Fatima was also nervous. Maternal uncles show up along with other family members. They’re trying to talk Abdul Mutallib from doing this. He says, “What am I supposed to do? I took an oath! I took an oath on sacred water!” Because he made that oath while digging the Well of Zamzam.
They decided to go to a soothsayer to figure out what to do
In pre-Islamic society, if you intentionally killed someone, you’d be killed in return, but if you accidentally killed someone, you’d have to pay blood money of 10 camels to the family of the deceased victim to show your remorse over your negligence.
The soothsayer suggests that since blood money is 10 camels, you take 2 straws. One straw is for Abdullah, the other straw is for 10 camels.
If you draw the 10-camels-straw, you sacrifice 10 camels. If Abdullah’s name comes up, you add 10 more camels. You keep doing that until you get to the camels.
Following the soothsayer’s advice, they draw straws, and Abdullah’s name is drawn ten times. Abdul Mutallib keeps getting more and more nervous, until the straw comes out to 100 camels.
Abdul Mutallib says, “100 camels is a lot to sacrifice. That would mean no food for the family or transportation. That’s a huge money waste.”
100 camels back then is like buying 100 Mercedes & driving them off a cliff. That’s a lot of money.
At the same time, his son’s life has been spared.
— Based on this story, Muhammad said, “I am the son of the two that were meant to be sacrificed” (Ismail & Abdullah)

Even in Islam, blood money (retribution) for someone who’s accidentally killed is 100 camels. It used to be 10 camels. After that incident with Abdullah, people took it as a precedent that blood money is now 100 camels. Islam blessed this practice.

— As he grew older, Abdullah was known as a prince of Makkah – very handsome, gifted, eloquent. He’s the most eligible bachelor at the time.

When time comes for Abdullah to get married, his father Abdul Mutallib sets him up with Aminah bint Wahab, who was known as Zahratu Makkah (Flower of Makkah)
She was raised by Uncle Wahaib
Abdullah & Amina get married.
— Sometime after marriage, Abdul Mutallib sent Abdullah to Yathrib for business about dates. Some narrations say that he was sent to Sham, but stopped for R&R in Yathrib. Abdullah fell ill, & died there at age 25.

Majority of narrations say that during Abdullah’s death, Aminah was expecting
Very few narrations say that Muhammad was 2 months old when his father died.
When the news of Abdullah’s death reaches Aminah in Makkah, she’s overcome with grief. Being very eloquent, Aminah recited some poetry, mourning her husband:
“The earth has become lonely without the son of Hashim. Abdullah has gone to become the neighbor of the grave, and he’s out there amongst the noise (the word for noise is in regard the sounds like a water buffalo when being attacked by a predator, or a sound a warrior makes in battle). Death called on him, and Abdullah went to answer the call. Death needs to remember that death did not replace the son of Hashim as his equal. It’s the evening time, and they’re carrying him out to the graveyard. They’re fighting to take part in carrying his body. The uncertainty of death snatched him away, but death should realize that Abdullah was a gift and blessing to many.”

Abdullah’s worldly possession consisted 5 camels, a small flock of goats, & 1 servant (a Habeshi named Baraqa, but was known as Ummu Ayman – one of the milk mothers of Muhammad)
A woman that nurses an infant basically becomes like the kid’s mother, so that means that he can never marry his milk mother of any of her biological children
Important to note that one of the Prophet’s milk mothers was a black woman

— Are Prophet’s parents & grandparents considered Believers? Do they go to Jannah?

Majority position of scholars throughout Islamic history is, “It’s not something we have to know. Their status don’t determine the key point of our Imaan. It plays no part in our deen. You will not be asked about it in the grave.”

— There are 2 minority groups who take one position over the other. First minority group says that the parents of the Messenger are NOT Believers.

Prophet once addressed a Bedouin & said, “My father & your father are in Hellfire.”
Another narration says the Prophet was sitting at his mother’s grave crying. “I asked permission to Allah to make dua for my mother, but was denied. So I asked for permission to visit my mother, and was granted the permission.”

— Another minority group says that the Prophet’s parents & grandparents ARE Believers.

1st understanding was that they were the type of people (Hunafa) who were the worshippers of one God before Islam was revealed
2nd understanding is a very weak narration that mentions that after Message of Prophet was revealed, his parents came back to life, listened to the narration, believed him, and died again. But remember that this is a very very weak hadis.
3rd understanding – a hadith that says there are 4 types of people Allah will test on Qiyamat.
1. Deaf man
“Oh Allah, Islam came & I couldn’t hear anything”

2. Person who lacked intelligence (mentally insane or disabled – not rational)
“Oh Allah, Islam came, the children used to throw cow dung at me” (expression that means kids would make fun of them)

3. Very old senile person (Islam came to this person when he was very old)
“Oh Allah, Islam came & I was unable to understand”

4. Person who died during Fatra – an extended period of time (centuries) when there were no Messengers sent to Earth (5 to 6 centuries). It was the time period between Isa & Muhammad – Isa’s message didn’t travel worldwide.
“Oh Allah, I was never told. I never witnessed the Messenger nor heard his message”

All of their arguments are completely legitimate.
Allah will test them by saying, “Promise me that you’ll obey me.” The people will promise to obey Allah
Allah will then show them a fire, and tell them to walk into it.
Those who walk into the fire will find Jannah. Those who disobey, will face Hellfire.
So basically, this argument says that Muhammad’s parents are considered the people of Fatra. Allahu a’lam.

 

Continue to the next episode

 

http://www.qalaminstitute.org/2012/01/seerah-life-of-the-prophet-the-prophets-parents/#.Utid5hBdWSo

 

Sahih Bukhari Kitab Waktu-Waktu Sembahyang Sesi 22 & 23 Bab Waktu Zuhur Semasa Gelincir Matahari May 26, 2014

Filed under: Hadith,Kitab Waktu Solat — visitor74 @ 6:01 pm

بَاب وَقْتُ الظُّهْرِ عِنْدَ الزَّوَالِ وَقَالَ جَابِرٌ كَانَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يُصَلِّي بِالْهَاجِرَةِ

Bab 93 Waktu Zuhur bermula sebaik sahaja Gelincir Matahari. Jabir Berkata: Nabi s.a.w. Selalu Bersembahyang zuhur Pada Waktu Panas Terik di tengahari.

Sekarang barulah Imam Bukhari masuk betul-betul hendak menceritakan tentang waktu solat. Iaitu tentang bilakah waktu solat itu masuk. Dimulakan dengan solat Zuhur. Sebelum ini dah sebut tentang ‘melewatkan solat zuhur’. Kenapa pula begitu? Nampak macam ada celaru, tidak ikut susunan. Sepatutnya, kalau kita fikir logik kita, tentulah kena cerita dulu tentang bilakah waktunya masuk, baru cerita tentang melewatkanya. Tapi itulah uniknya susunan yang dibuat oleh Imam Bukhari. Begitulah juga susunan Quran. Bukan mengikut waktu turunnya ayat itu. Tapi ada rahsia dalam susunan ayat-ayat Quran itu. Kena belajar baru tahu kelebihan sususan itu.

Kenapa mulakan dengan waktu zuhur? Kenapa tidak dimulakan dengan solat subuh pula? Kerana itulah waktu pertama Nabi solat berjemaah dengan para sahabat. Ini adalah selepas baginda dapat hadiah solat dalam isra mi’raj. Memang solat Nabi yang pertama adalah subuh. Tapi waktu itu dilakukan bersama roh-roh para Nabi yang dahulu.

Ulama hampir sepakat mengatakan bahawa waktu zuhur masuk sebaik sahaja matahari condong sedikit. Iaitu selepas bayang sesuatu barang itu sebesar lebar tali kasut. Ini berdasarkan hadis riwayat Ibnu Abbas. Ada dalam Sunan Abu Dawud.

Akhir waktu zuhur pula, ada khilaf ulama. Jumhur ulama berpendapat waktu zuhur berakhir apabila bayang sesuatu barang seperti tiang yang dicacakkan itu sama panjang dengan benda itu. Cuma, Imam Abu Hanifah mengatakan yang waktu zuhur berakhir apabila bayang itu jadi dua kali panjang. Tapi tak ramai yang berpandangan begitu.

Ada ulama yang mengatakan, ada waktu yang dinamakan Waktu Mushrarak. Iaitu satu waktu yang berkongsi antara zuhur dan asar. Panjang waktu itu adalah sekadar 4 rakaat solat. Imam Bukhari tak setuju dengan pendapat ini. Kerana waktu ini juga dinamakan waktu faasilah. Atau waktu senggang. Tidak molek solat pada waktu ini pada pendapat Imam Bukhari. Ada juga yang menamakannya waktu mukmal. Mukmal bermaksud: ‘kosong”. Solat itu sah, tapi tiada pahala.

Imam Bukhari berpendapat waktu zuhur sampai masuk waktu asar. Rapat antara kedua-dua waktu itu. Habis sahaja waktu zuhur, terus masuk waktu Asar. Tidak ada apa-apa waktu antaranya. Ulama fekah mengatakan, kalau sempat satu rukuk dalam waktu itu sudah dikira solat dalam waktu. Contohnya, kita dapat rukuk dalam waktu zuhur dan selepas kita rukuk, terus kedengaran azan waktu Asar. Itu bermakna, kita dah dapat solat dalam waktu zuhur. Tak berdosa kalau kita sekali-sekala buat. Mungkin kita ada hal yang tak dapat dielakkan. Cuma berdosa kalau dijadikan kebiasaan – hari-hari solat waktu itu sahaja. Itu dah lain dah tu.

Imam Bukhari membawakan kata Jabir secara takliq – tanpa sanad, untuk mengatakan pernah Nabi solat zuhur apabila matahari terus sahaja tergelincir. Untuk menyatakan bahawa waktu zuhur terus masuk apabila matahari tergelincir. Iaitu, waktu itu tengah panas terik lagi.

507 – حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو الْيَمَانِ قَالَ أَخْبَرَنَا شُعَيْبٌ عَنْ الزُّهْرِيِّ قَالَ أَخْبَرَنِي أَنَسُ بْنُ مَالِكٍ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ خَرَجَ حِينَ زَاغَتْ الشَّمْسُ فَصَلَّى الظُّهْرَ فَقَامَ عَلَى الْمِنْبَرِ فَذَكَرَ السَّاعَةَ فَذَكَرَ أَنَّ فِيهَا أُمُورًا عِظَامًا ثُمَّ قَالَ مَنْ أَحَبَّ أَنْ يَسْأَلَ عَنْ شَيْءٍ فَلْيَسْأَلْ فَلَا تَسْأَلُونِي عَنْ شَيْءٍ إِلَّا أَخْبَرْتُكُمْ مَا دُمْتُ فِي مَقَامِي هَذَا فَأَكْثَرَ النَّاسُ فِي الْبُكَاءِ وَأَكْثَرَ أَنْ يَقُولَ سَلُونِي فَقَامَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ حُذَافَةَ السَّهْمِيُّ فَقَالَ مَنْ أَبِي قَالَ أَبُوكَ حُذَافَةُ ثُمَّ أَكْثَرَ أَنْ يَقُولَ سَلُونِي فَبَرَكَ عُمَرُ عَلَى رُكْبَتَيْهِ فَقَالَ رَضِينَا بِاللَّهِ رَبًّا وَبِالْإِسْلَامِ دِينًا وَبِمُحَمَّدٍ نَبِيًّا فَسَكَتَ ثُمَّ قَالَ عُرِضَتْ عَلَيَّ الْجَنَّةُ وَالنَّارُ آنِفًا فِي عُرْضِ هَذَا الْحَائِطِ فَلَمْ أَرَ كَالْخَيْرِ وَالشَّرِّ

507. Telah menceritakan kepada kami Abu Al Yaman berkata, telah mengabarkan kepada kami Syu’aib dari Az Zuhri berkata, telah mengabarkan kepadaku Anas bin Malik, bahawa Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam keluar rumah untuk melaksanakan salat Zhuhur sebaik sahaja matahari tergelincir. Kemudian baginda berdiri atas mimbar dan menyebutkan tentang hari kiamat. Beliau sebutkan bahawa pada saat itu akan berlaku banyak perkara yang besar, kemudian baginda bersabda: “Siapa ingin bertanya tentang sesuatu, maka bertanyalah. Dan tidaklah kalian bertanya kepadaku tentang tentang sesuatu, kecuali aku akan khabarkan kepada kalian selama aku berada di tempatku ini.” Maka para sahabat pun menangis, dan Nabi shallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam terus mengulangi: “Bertanyalah kepadaku.” Maka berdirilah ‘Abdullah bin Hudzafah As Sahmi seraya bertanya, “Siapakah ayahku?” Beliau menjawab: “Ayahmu Hudzafah.” Kemudian Nabi shallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam meminta lagi: “Bertanyalah kepadaku.” Maka berlututlah ‘Umar lantas berkata, “Kami ridha Allah sebagai Rabb, Islam sebagai agama dan Muhammad sebagai Nabi kami.” Barulah Nabi shallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam diam kemudian bersabda: “Baru sekejap diperlihatkan kepadaku syurga dan neraka di dinding ini, aku tidak pernah lihat kebaikan dan keburukan sebagaimana yang aku lihat itu.”

Hadis ini ada Asbabul Wurud – sebab turun hadis. Kalau ayat Quran, ada Asbabun Nuzul. Hadis pun kena tahu sebab turunnya, atau background hadis itu. Kalau tidak, kita mungkin tidak faham kalau kita baca sahaja hadis itu. Kerana kalau kita baca hadis ini, sebenarnya Nabi suruh sahabat bertanya itu dalam keadaan marah.

Maka Nabi kata tanyalah apa yang hendak ditanya selagi baginda ada atas mimbar itu. Maknanya, tentulah Allah beri arahan kepada baginda untuk berbuat begitu. Kalau tak tahu kisah sepenuhnya, kita tak tahu hujung pangkal kisah dalam hadis dan kita tak faham. Kisahnya adalah: ada orang munafik yang kata Nabi tak boleh jawab apa-apa pun. Ini adalah kerana musuh Islam merancang sesama mereka bagaimana hendak menjatuhkan Nabi. Ada puak munafik yang berjumpa dengan puak Yahudi. Puak Yahudi yang suruh mereka tanya macam-macam. Mereka akan bagi idea untuk ditanya. Maka, puak Munafiklah yang buat masalah dalam hal ini.

Dalam kes ini, puak munafik merendahkan puak muslim. Mereka kata puak muslim pun bukan tahu siapa sebenarnya ayah sebenar mereka. Kerana dulu pun mereka orang jahiliah belaka. Dan semasa jahiliah, memang hubungan lelaki perempuan bebas. Seorang perempuan, boleh mengadakan hubungan dengan lebih dari seorang lelaki. Itu adalah kebiasaan. Jadi ada kemungkinan ayah mereka bukanlah ayah sebenar. Selepas Nabi suruh tanya tu, mereka pun takut sebenarnya nak tanya. Tapi suruh mereka tanya juga. Yang mula berani tanya adalah Abdullah bin Hudzafah As Sahmi. Dia tanya tentang siapakah ayahnya kerana itulah kemusykilan dalam hatinya. Dia sanggup untuk tahu walaupun kalau Nabi beritahu yang bapanya adalah lain dari bapanya sekarang.

Nabi mulanya telah naik mimbar dan memperkatakan tentang hari akhirat. Tidak dijelaskan dalam hadis ini apakah butir yang baginda sebutkan. Cuma dikatakan bahawa ianya adalah perkara yang besar. Kemudian Nabi suruh para sahabat bertanya kepada baginda.

Dalam hadis ini ada permasalahan akidah yang perlu dijelaskan. Iaitu ada yang menggunakan hadis seperti ini untuk menyatakan bahawa Nabi tahu segalanya perkara ghaib. Mereka kalau Allah telah beri ilmu yang lengkap tentang alam ghaib kepada Nabi. Ini adalah akidah yang salah. Bukanlah Nabi tahu semua perkara melainkan apa yang diberitahu kepada baginda sahaja. Fahaman yang mengatakan Nabi tahu perkara ghaib adalah fahaman Brehlawi. Itu adalah puak sesat. Fahaman begini tidak banyak nampaknya di Malaysia tapi mungkin ada juga yang berfahaman macam itu sikit-sikit. Maka kita kena berhati-hati.

Nabi kata selagi baginda ada di situ. Maknanya waktu itu sahaja. Dalam Quran pun disebut Nabi tak tahu perkara ghaib.

Kenapa mereka menangis? Ada kata sebab Nabi telah cerita tentang kiamat dan mereka terkesan dengannya.

Kenapakah Umar duduk berlutut? Ini adalah kerana Umar faham. Dia seorang sahabat yang amat cerdik. Dia tahu yang Nabi marah dari cara cakap Nabi. Umar melutut itu kerana hendak tunjuk merendah diri dengan Nabi. Duduk itu dikatakan beliau duduk iftirash – duduk tahiyat awal.

Kenapa Nabi reda selepas Umar kata begitu? Kerana soalan mereka itu seperti tidak percaya dan menduga kepada baginda. Maka, Umar mengatakan yang mereka semua redha dengan Nabi sebagai Nabi mereka. Mereka tidak mempersoalkan kenabian baginda. Kerana soalan mereka itu seperti menduga Nabi. Apabila kita duga seseorang, itu seperti kita tidak percaya kepada orang itu.

 

Pengajaran yang boleh diambil dari hadis ini: 

  1. Selalunya Nabi akan solat zuhur di awal waktu, iaitu sebaik sahaja matahari tergelincir. Sebab Jabir kata ‘selalu’.
  2. Selalu apabila ada perkara penting, Nabi akan naik dan cakap dari atas mimbar. Kalau perkara biasa, Nabi tak cakap macam tu. Kalau ada pengumuman yang penting pun Nabi akan naik ke atas mimbar. Supaya ramai orang boleh tahu.
  3. Salah satu kepercayaan yang paling penting dalam Islam adalah percaya kepada hari kiamat. Ianya pasti akan berlaku. Maka, hendaklah kita bersedia kepadanya. Ianya adalah satu perkara yang amat besar. Kena berjaga-jaga.
  4. Ada masanya Allah akan membukakan khashaf kepada Nabi untuk nampak perkara ghaib. Bukan Nabi minta. Bukan macam orang yang belajar amalan untuk mendapatkannya. Seperti orang kita yang belajar isim. Itulah yang selalu jadi gila isim tu. Mereka yang belajar itu kerana mereka hendak ilmu ghaib. Macam-macam boleh dapat. Bila hendak sahaja, boleh jadi. Itu bukan ilmu yang baik sebenarnya. Itu adalah ilmu sihir.
  5. Bertanya untuk menjatuhkan seseorang amat tidak disukai Nabi. Itulah yang terjadi dalam hal ini. Cara mereka bertanya seperti mereka hendak menguji Nabi. Nak tanya memang boleh, tapi kalau tanya kerana didorong perasaan, itu tidak elok.
  6. Para sahabat sensitif sampai menangis. Banyak terjadi perkara yang sebegini. Mereka telah dididik jiwanya oleh Nabi. Mereka terkesan dengan ajaran Nabi. Orang yang sebegini, tidak mudah buat maksiat. Kerana mereka takut dengan neraka dan azab dari Allah. Mereka macam dah nampak. Bukan macam kita, walaupun kita tahu, tapi belum sampai ke tahap mereka.
  7. Kelbihan beradap dengan guru dan duduk dengan baik. Apabila Umar hendak memujuk Nabi, beliau telah duduk melutut.
  8. Ada langkah untuk dibuat apabila ada orang marah. Kena redakan dia. Langkah itu haruslah yang dapat meredakan kemarahannya itu. Bukan jadi lebih marah. Pakailah cara yang sesuai.
  9. Syurga dan neraka telah dicipta dan telah wujud sebelum manusia dicipta.
  10. Syurga dan neraka telah ditayangkan kepada Nabi. Dalam hadis ini, ianya ditayangkan di dinding masjid. Zaman sekarang macam pakai projector lah. Dalam hadis ini ditunjukkan di tembok dinding semasa baginda bersama sahabat. Tapi mereka tak nampak, hanya Nabi sahaja nampak. Allah beri mata Nabi sahaja yang nampak. Apabila kita di zaman sekarang, lebih senang nak faham bagaimana perkara ini terjadi. Sebagai contoh, kalau kita pakai cermin mata tertentu, hanya kita sahaja yang nampak, tapi orang lain tak nampak. Kita boleh faham bagaimana ianya terjadi. Tapi orang dulu tak faham. Sepatutnya, kita lebih lagi faham dari mereka. Semakin lama kemajuan meningkat, semakin banyak ajaran-ajaran Islam itu lebih difahami; Kelebihan dan kebaikan dalam syurga tiada bandingan. Begitu juga dengan keterukan di neraka tiada bandingannya.

 

Soalan
Bolehkah tatap Quran waktu solat seperti yang dilakukan sekarang, dimana imam solat Terawih akan bukan Quran di hadapannya. Boleh. Zaman dulu ada mushaf umm. Sahabat solat di situ supaya boleh baca. Tapi mungkin tidak elok dilakukan sangat kerana takut orang tak usaha untuk hafal Quran pula. Kerana ada keutamaan dalam menghafal Quran. Ulama pun takut jadi macam agama lain. Mereka dalam beribadat, mereka akan bukan kitab mereka dan baca. Seeloknya, kita hafal Quran itu.

 

508 – حَدَّثَنَا حَفْصُ بْنُ عُمَرَ قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا شُعْبَةُ حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو الْمِنْهَالِ عَنْ أَبِي بَرْزَةَ كَانَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يُصَلِّي الصُّبْحَ وَأَحَدُنَا يَعْرِفُ جَلِيسَهُ وَيَقْرَأُ فِيهَا مَا بَيْنَ السِّتِّينَ إِلَى الْمِائَةِ وَيُصَلِّي الظُّهْرَ إِذَا زَالَتْ الشَّمْسُ وَالْعَصْرَ وَأَحَدُنَا يَذْهَبُ إِلَى أَقْصَى الْمَدِينَةِ رَجَعَ وَالشَّمْسُ حَيَّةٌ وَنَسِيتُ مَا قَالَ فِي الْمَغْرِبِ وَلَا يُبَالِي بِتَأْخِيرِ الْعِشَاءِ إِلَى ثُلُثِ اللَّيْلِ ثُمَّ قَالَ إِلَى شَطْرِ اللَّيْلِ وَقَالَ مُعَاذٌ قَالَ شُعْبَةُ لَقِيتُهُ مَرَّةً فَقَالَ أَوْ ثُلُثِ اللَّيْلِ

508. Telah menceritakan kepada kami Hafsh bin ‘Umar berkata, telah menceritakan kepada kami Syu’bah telah menceritakan kepada kami Abu Al Minhal dari Abu Barzah, bahawa Nabi shallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam selesai melaksanakan shalat subuh, ketika salah seorang dari kami dapat mengenali siapa orang yang ada di sisinya. Dalam salat tersebut baginda membaca antara enam puluh hingga seratus (ayat). Dan baginda shalat Zhuhur apabila matahari sudah gelincir, dan bersalat ‘Ashar apabila salah seorang dari kami pulang ke hujung Madinah (apabila selesai solat bersama Nabi di masjid baginda) dan mendapati matahari masih belum berubah (masih panas dan cerah lagi). Aku lupa apa yang baginda katakan tentang salat Maghrib. Baginda tidak kisah melewatkan salat ‘Isya hingga sepertiga malam lalu melaksanakannya sampai separuh malam.” Mu’adz berkata, Syu’bah berkata; “Aku pernah berjumpa dengannya (Abu al Minhal) pada ketika yang lain pula, beliau berkata, ‘Atau sehingga sepertiga malam’.”

يُصَلِّي الصُّبْحَ bermaksud selesai solat. Bukan baru nak mula. Masa mula solat, gelap sampai tak kenal pun orang sebelah. Sebab gelap sangat. Waktu itu dinamakan waktu gholas. Atau waktu ghobash.

Banyak ayat yang Nabi baca dalam solat. Nabi baca pula dengan tartil. Dengan penuh ketenangan. Itulah Sunnah. Maknanya, lama sungguh. Habis solat itu dah sampai waktu isfar – cerah tanah. Sahabat memang suka dengar bacaan Nabi. Dan waktu itulah Nabi nak sampaikan ayat yang baru turun kepada sahabat. Mereka boleh dengar dan hafal surah-surah dari Quran. Dan Nabi nak bagi sahabat dapat hafal Quran. Masa subuh pun tenang jadi boleh menyusup masuk dalam jiwa para sahabat. Dan baca panjang sebab baru bangun tidur – waktu itu mereka masih segar.

Ada khilaf tentang waktu afdhal solat subuh. Imam Abu Hanifah kata, waktu yang afdhal adalah waktu isfar. Kebanyakan ulama kata waktu gholas.

Solat zuhur dilakukan bila matahari telah tergelincir sedikit. Inilah topik utama hadis ini. Dilakukan sebaik habis solat qabliah. Maka, awal waktulah waktu yang afdhal sebenarnya. Itulah yang selalu dilakukan oleh Nabi.

Waktu asar dilakukan, pada waktu yang bila dah habis solat, bila mereka yang balik ke hujung Madinah pun, cuaca masih cerah. Mereka yang tinggal di hujung Madinah itu dalam 3-8 batu juga. Samada mereka berjalan atau mereka naik unta. Maknanya, awal Nabi melakukan solat asar. Itulah yang terbaik. Kalau solat Asar itu lewat, tentu mereka yang balik ke hujung Madinah dah jadi senja dah waktu itu. Kalau Nabi solat lewat, itu tidak selalu dilakukan. Sampai sekarang pun di masjid Nabi pun buat awal. Mazhab Hanafi sahaja yang kata lewat.

Dalam hadis ini, perawi kata dia lupa apakah gurunya mengatakan tentang waktu Maghrib. Lupa itu sifat manusia. Ini sebenarnya bukan menunjukkan lemahnya perawi itu, tapi menekankan sifat amanahnya. Tandanya adalah, dia akan sebut kalau lupa. Tapi apabila dia lupa, tidak semestinya kita tak dapat tahu, kerana bukan Abu Barzah sampaikan kepada dia sahaja. Kerana ada حَدَّثَنَا bermaksud ada disampaikan kepada orang lain juga. Dan mungkin ada waktu lain, dia ingat balik. Kerana kadang manusia lupa sekejap sahaja.

Maghrib sahaja ulama tiada khilaf tentang waktunya. Sama sahaja. Iaitu dilakukan di awal waktu. Dalam waktu-waktu lain, ada sahaja khilaf ulama tentang waktu yang afdhal atau tidak.

Solat isyak boleh lewat. Nabi pun tidak kisah kalau lewat. Tapi selalunya hingga sepertiga malam sahaja. Pada mula perawi tidak jelas, tapi selepas ditanya kembali, beliau pasti yang Nabi solat hanya sehingga sepertiga malam.

Nabi tak suka sahabat tidur sebelum isyak. Dan Nabi tidak suka sahabat bersembang lepas isyak. Kecuali kalau ada faedah. Sebab takut terlewat subuh nanti.

Pengajaran yang boleh diambil dari hadis ini:

  1. Nabi solat subuh berjemaah di masjid
  2. Nabi baca ayat selepas fatihah dalam subuh dalam 60-100 ayat. Tak perndah dengar dari hadis yang mengatakan Nabi tak baca surah lepas fatihah. Oleh itu, ianya adalah sunnah untuk baca surah selepas fatihah.
  3. Selesai subuh, jemaah dah boleh kenal orang sebelah. Waktu mula tak kenal. Kerana gelap sangat. Ada juga hadis yang kata apabila selesai, sahabiah perempuan tidak kenal sesama mereka. Itu adalah kerana mereka pakai kelubung, maka tidak nampak jelas. Tapi kepada yang lelaki, mereka boleh kenal yang sebelah mereka. Tapi, hanya sebelah mereka. Bermakna, bukan cerah sangat lagi.
  4. Zuhur masuk sebaik sahaja matahari tergelincir. Kecuali bayang sedia ada. Kerana kalau kita tidak berada tepat bawah khatulistiwa, tentu tidak dapat bayang tidak ada langsung kerana matahari tidak berada tepat atas kepala. Maka, dalam keadaan macam itu, kita kena tanda manakah bayang yang asal. Gelincir itu kena kira selepas bergerak dari bayang yang asal.
  5. Asar masuk apabila bayang sama panjang dengan barang yang digunakan sebagai tanda.
  6. Nabi selalu solat dalam awal waktu zuhur dah asar. Selepas solat sunat qabliah.
  7. Bukti Nabi solat awal waktu Asar adalah, apabila jemaah pulang, masih ada cahaya lagi. Mereka yang balik itu tinggal jauh dari masjid.
  8. Nabi tidak kisah solat isyak lewat.
  9. Sifat cermat para perawi dalam menyampaikan hadis. Kalau mereka tidak pasti, mereka tidak cakap. Walaupun, kalau difikirkan, tentulah dia tahu apakah pegangan dalam agama tentang waktu maghrib. Tapi sebab dia tidak ingat perkataan yang digunakan dengan tepat, maka dia akan cakap. Ini adalah tanda cermat dan tanda amanah perawi.
  10. Tidak mengapa kalau kata tak ingat mana mana bahagian dalam hadis dalam menyampaikannya. Bukanlah keseluruhan hadis itu tidak boleh pakai dah.

 

509 – حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدٌ يَعْنِي ابْنَ مُقَاتِلٍ قَالَ أَخْبَرَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ قَالَ أَخْبَرَنَا خَالِدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ حَدَّثَنِي غَالِبٌ الْقَطَّانُ عَنْ بَكْرِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ الْمُزَنِيِّ عَنْ أَنَسِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ قَالَ كُنَّا إِذَا صَلَّيْنَا خَلْفَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ بِالظَّهَائِرِ فَسَجَدْنَا عَلَى ثِيَابِنَا اتِّقَاءَ الْحَرِّ

509. Telah menceritakan kepada kami Muhammad -yakni Ibnu Muqatil – berkata, telah mengabarkan kepada kami ‘Abdullah berkata, telah mengabarkan kepada kami Khalid bin ‘Abdurrahman telah menceritakan kepadaku Ghalib Al Qaththan dari Bakar bin ‘Abdullah Al Muzani dari Anas bin Malik ia berkata, “Ketika kami salat di belakang Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam pada salat Zhuhur, kami sujud beralaskan pakaian kami untuk menghindari panasnya lantai tempat sujud.”

Dalam hadis ini, perawi mengatakan “kami sujud beralaskan pakaian kami”. Ini menunjukkan mereka menggunakan kain sebagai alas. Adakah menggunakan kain lain sebagai alas atau kain dari pakaian mereka? Dalam hadis yang lain, dijelaskan bahawa kain itu adalah dari pakaian mereka. Cuma dalam hadis ini tidak dijelaskan dari manakah kain itu datang.

Mengikut mazhab Syafie, tidak boleh menggunakan kain dari pakaian sendiri yang sedang dipakai. Iaitu kain yang bergerak sekali dengan kita.

Hadis ini menunjukkan boleh guna lapik dalam solat. Macam kita sekarang selalu pakai sejadah atau khumrah – sejadah kecil. Nabi tak larang. Lagi selesa dan lagi molek kerana dapat khusyuk. Syiah pula kata kena sujud atas tanah. Tanah pula kena tanah Karbala. Kalau kata elok sujud atas tanah pun, kenapa tanah Karbala? Umar Abd Aziz pun suka solat atas tanah tapi tanah biasa sahaja. Kerana dia rasa lebih rendah diri kalau begitu. Tapi tidaklah dia paksa orang lain. Untuk dirinya sahaja.

khumrah – cukup letak tangan dan kepala sahaja

 

Ini juga menunjukkan bahawa solat waktu Dzuhur itu dilakukan awal waktu kerana dalam hadis ini dikatakan mereka solat dalam keadaan panas sampai sahabat kena lapik.

Pengajaran yang boleh diambil dari hadis ini

  1. Ada ketika Nabi solat berjemaah ketika panas terik.
  2. Keharusan menggunakan pelapik. Lebih bersih dan selesa.
  3. Kejadian ini mungkin sebelum disuruh solat sehingga sejuk dulu. Belum sampai perintah untuk melewatkan solat seperti yang kita telah belajar sebelum ini. Kerana terlalu panas, sahabat ada yang mengadu tentang kepanasan itu kepada Nabi. Tapi Nabi senyap sahaja kerana belum ada perintah; ada juga yang kata hadis ini bukan terjadi sebelum perintah melewatkan solat itu. Tapi Nabi buat waktu panas kerana nak kata boleh dan sah kalau solat dalam waktu panas. Takut ada kata tak boleh langsung solat waktu panas terik.
  4. Keharusan menanggung sedikit kesusahan untuk menghilangkan kekeliruan. Maknanya boleh kalau solat panas terik.

Soalan:
Ada orang yang marah kalau orang lain solat tak pakai kopiah. Betulkah kena pakai tutup kepala sentiasa?
Nabi pun pernah tak pakai. Hanya pakai satu kain sahaja. Sampaikan sahabat ada yang nampak ketiak Nabi. Jadi, bukanlah satu kewajipan untuk pakai tutup kepala. Dan tidaklah salah kalau tak pakai tutup kepala. Jangan kita keliru. Masyarakat kita letakkan kepentingan dalam perkara yang tidak ada asas.

 

 

Seerah episode 7: Invasion of the Elephants May 23, 2014

Filed under: Seerah — visitor74 @ 9:32 pm

Abraha starts marching to Makkah with his army of 60,000 soldiers & a dozen elephants.

Abraha took elephants for 2 reasons:
Elephants will act as his bulldozers. They’d walk through & trample the towns.
Arabs had never seen elephants before, so to introduce a dozen mighty beasts to them would be to introduce shock & fear to the Arabs – to make them run for the hills.

As Abraha is traveling north, he’s meeting the Arabs. Arabs see him traveling with such a large army, so they’re rallying to defend the Kab’ah. For all the Arabs, the Ka’bah was their sacred place, so defending the Ka’bah would be defending their honor as well.

Abraha would tell the Arabs exactly why the Abyssinians were here – to defend the honor of his church Qullays after an Arab man desecrated the church, so that the Arabs would understand that if this happened to the Kab’ah, the Arabs would be knocking on the Abyssinians’ door as well

— One of the people that Abraha comes across is Dhu Nafr, the ruler of the boundary of the Yemen/Hejaz region

Abraha’s army easily ran over Dhu Nafr’s army. Dhu Nafr was brought to Abraha, who was about to issue the order to kill the defeated ruler. Dhu Nafr pleaded with Abraha. “Listen King, don’t kill me. Leaving me alive might end up working for you.” Dhu Nafr said that keeping him alive would serve some benefit to Abraha.

Abraha’s army continue the journey to the Kab’ah, with Dhu Nafr tagging along as a his prisoner.

— As Abraha continues the journey, he came across the two tribes Shahran & Nahez. Their leader was Nufail bin Habib, who rallied the tribes to fight against Abraha. Of course, Abraha easily defeats them & takes Nufail as a prisoner too.

Now Abraha has ran over 2 armies, so he’s developing a bit of a reputation. As Abraha kept proceeding forward, the other Arab tribes who were originally going to put up a fight don’t even bother resisting. They just let Abraha walk on by.

— Abraha crosses Ta’if.
The leader of Takheef tribe, Mas’ood, says, “Oh king, we’re your slaves (we’re at your service). We will obey you and by the way, we have no disagreement with you. We have no affiliation with the Kab’ah.” Because they have their own idols and as mentioned in previous episodes, they sort of have their own Kaabah that they make tawaf. Tai’f was where the major idol of Al-lat was located (a shrine).
Abraha gets a guy named Abu Rehal who’s a human map; he knows all the roads & routes. Knows everybody along the way like a scout.

— Interesting history about Abu Rehal
Abu Rehal leads Abraha to Makkah. They reach a place outside of Makkah called Al Muhammas. Abu Rehal gets fever; he died & gets buried there. Much later in history, Abu Rehal is seen as a traitor to Arabs. Because he was the one that showed the way to Mecca.
People would go & do jamaarat & pretty much defile (spit & dump animal intestines) on Abu Rehal’s grave, because he was someone who turned his back on the House of Allah & his people.

The ruins of Thamood are in al-Hejaz. There was also a man named Abu Rehal who was a notorious individual in the tribe of Thamood. He’d discourage people from worshipping God & respecting & listening to prophet Saleh. We was involved in the killing of the camel. Azab was sent to the people. He wasn’t killed along with the rest of the people. He was one of the few survivors. When people later found out who he was, he was stoned to death because they said he was the reason that the azab was sent to his people.

Basically, Abu Rehal was not a good name. 2 guys named Abu Rehal were men with questionable character.
— Now Abraha & army of 60,000 soldiers are parked just outside of Makkah.

Abraha sends a Habeshi man, al-Aswad bin Maqsood, to deliver a message to the Arabs outside of Makkah: “Let them know that I [Abraha] am not there to shed blood. I’m here to knock down the Kab’ah – that’s it. If you don’t resist, no one will get hurt. Just clear my path.”

Abraha’s army started to raid people’s houses & camels. They find a pasture with 200 camels roaming about. They kill the shepherd & bring the camels back to the camp, intending to feast.
— As mentioned before, in pre-Islamic society, there was no king to unify all the tribes & clans, but in Makkah, by default, if you had an issue about anything, you’d go to Abdul Mutallib.

The Habeshi man talks to Abdul Mutallib. Abdul Mutallib then goes on to talk to the leaders of Quraysh. At first they’re all excited to fight Abraha, but realize they don’t have the means or resources to defeat Abraha, so they ask Abdul Mutallib (Shaybat ibn Hashim) to reason with Abraha. Abdul Mutallib then asks Al-Aswad bin Maqsood for a meeting with Abraha.
Al-Aswad agreed, & goes to talk with Sa’is al Fil (named Unais, the elephant breeder).
Abdul Mutallib goes to talk with Abraha & spots Dhu Nafr. Abdul Mutallib asks Dhu Nafr to help the Arabs out. Dhu Nafr responds, “How is a prisoner supposed to help you when he’s tied up by the king? He could kill me in the morning or in the evening. But I can try to get you through the door to meet with the king.”

— Abdul Mutallib meets up with Abraha
Abdul Mutallib had a great physical presence about him. He was a natural born leader. As soon as Abraha sees Abdul Mutallib, Abraha sees a respected, dignified man and is in complete awe & respect of the leader of Quraysh.

Abraha gets up from his throne to sit on the ground next to Abdul Mutallib as a gesture of respect. Abdul Mutallib tells Abraha, “I have 200 camels, but they were raided by your soldiers. I just want my camels back.”

Abraha was pretty shocked by that request. Here he was to destroy the Ka’bah, but this man is here to talk about camels! Foolish man. Abraha tells Abdul Mutallib, “When you walked through the door, I was instantly in awe of you. Here’s an actual leader. But now when I hear you talk, I am dumbfounded. Are you really here to talk about camels? You don’t want to talk about the Ka’bah, the center point of your religion and the religion of your forefathers? Your whole identity is based out of that. You don’t want to talk about that?”

Abdul Mutallib responds with his famous statement: “What I want you to understand is that I’m the owner of these camels, so they’re my responsibility. I’m here to defend my property. What you’re not realizing is that the house you’re going to attack also has an owner, a master, and He’ll take care of it. I am the lord of these camels. This House has a Lord who will defend it.” That’s deep and profound words that came out of Abdul Mutallib.

Abraha, though taken back, said, “Nothing’s going to stop me! Do you see my army? Do you see my elephants?! Nothing’s capable of stopping me.” Abdul Mutallib basically shrugs, saying, “Okay cool. You and the Raab can take it up. I don’t know what’s gonna stop you. It’s between you and Him.” Abraha then gives the camels back to Abdul Mutallib

— Abdul Mutallib goes back to Quraysh. Tells them what’s up. And he suggested to them to take take refuge outside Mecca. They head out for the mountains & camp there, waiting for the fight to blow over. As they’re leaving, Abdul Mutallib goes to the door of the Ka’bah, and holds the ring (door handle of Ka’bah), and recites some supplication/poetry.
“Oh Allah, stop them (lahum). Lahum, lahum. Please, defend your home. Oh Allah, do not let their cross hang here. All their energy is being spent to attack You, not just Your four walls. But if You decide to leave it be, then let it be.” Abdul Mutallib then goes toward the mountains with the rest of his tribe.

— Abraha approaches the Kab’ah with his army
Nufail, the prisoner who was defeated & captured, had been hanging around Unais (the elephant breeder) a lot. Nufail picked up on how to communicate with the elephants.
Nufail goes up to the biggest elephant, the leader of the dozen, called Mahmud, the one that Abraha would ride on.

Nufail gets Mahmud’s attention & speaks into the elephant’s ear. “Listen. You’re about to go & attack the House & Place that belongs to my Creator & your Creator. Ubrook, Ya Mahmud, ubrook (sit down). Go back to where you came from. You’re treading on the sacred ground of Allah. Ubrook.”

Boorok al ibl – camels have distinct behavior, like dogs in sense of loyalty & sentimental to his master, but at same time, they are very noble. If someone mistreats a camel, camel won’t stand for it. It sits down & refuses to get back up. You can’t make the camel get back up again – it would just ignores you. When it’s angry, it’s angry. With that, Nufail walks away.

— Then Mahmud just parks it. He sits down & refuses to get back up (just like a camel). This goes completely against an elephant’s behavior, because it’s a trained animal.

Now everyone’s confused. Abraha’s angry & called Unais. “What’s wrong with your elephant? Get your act together!” Unais tries all of his tricks together but Mahmud won’t get up. Unais thought that something must have spooked Mahmud, so he turns the elephant over to all other sides where Mahmud walks, but if he’s turned toward Makkah, he’d sit back down again & refuse to get up
— Abraha decides, “Forget it”, then marches with his army toward Makkah

Allah sends very unique small birds (sort of like sparrows) that were coming from the seaside. They literally came out of the blue. Narrations says the birds carried 3 stones (size of chickpeas) – 2 in claws & 1 in beak.

Basically the birds obliterated Abraha’ army. Stones were basically bullets that would cut through & burn through flesh. Abraha was hit by the stones a few times along with others. He was able to escape that place, but he fell very sick & his body started to rot.
Narrations specifically mention that Abraha’s fingers & toes rotted & started to fall off. By the time he reached back to the center of his kingdom, he was a vegetable. Soon after he reached Yemen, he died.

Just a depiction

— Aisha (ra) is born about 40+ years after the Invasion of the Elephants. The elephant breeder, Unais, & his assistant were still in Makkah. Aisha recalled seeing them beg on the corners (they had gone blind in the attack)
— After the army was destroyed & people retreated, there were a large number of dead bodies & dead elephants lying around in Makkah. Shortly after Abraha’s defeat, there was a huge storm & there was a huge flood, which carried all the bodies away from Makkah.

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Seerah episode 6: History of Zamzam May 22, 2014

Filed under: Seerah — visitor74 @ 12:03 am

The legend of ‘Abd’l-Muttalib was established and solidified by two major events in his life. These were his lasting legacy:

I. Re-digging of the well of zamzam (prologue to the birth of the Messenger of Allah)
II. Invasion of the Army of the Elephants

The Re-Digging of the Well of  Zamzam
Most of us are aware about the story of the Prophet Isma’il and his mother Hajer ‘alayhuma as-salaam. The baby was thirsty and they were in a valley with no vegetation. The mother began making rounds (immortalized in the acts of sa’i for umrah and hajj) to find something for her child. Then, by the grace of Allah a fountain of water flowed from near the area the foot of the baby had been thrashing at on the ground.

This spring was not just a spiritually symbolic thing. It defined the political, economic and social development of the region. The place was now habitable. Therefore, the incident of the zamzam well is very important. It has a huge impact.

The people of Yemen were leaving their areas (first because of starvation and economic oppression) and found this inviting region. Then, the second exodus of the Yemeni people happened because of the huge flood that happened at Yemen. These people were also attracted to Hejaz.

Many people had settled here. Centuries passed, but somewhere along the lines (it is not very clear who, but they attributed it to the tribe of Jurhum) someone sealed the well. There was civil war because families and tribes were disputing over the well of zamzam and control of Mecca. One tribe put their weapons over the well and buried it so that it was not recoverable. Years became decades and centuries and people even forgot about the well.

At the time of ‘Abd’l-Muttalib, the people had heard what they presumed were myths about this well with sweet water that would never run out. One day, ‘Abd’l-Muttalib goes home and lays down and in his dream something came to him.

Many of the scholars have not shied away from saying that this may have been Angel communicating with this noteworthy individual. It was inspired (ilham) to him like what happened to the mother of Musa ‘alayhi as-salaam.

The thing told him to go and dig up teeba (that thing which is very attractive). He asked it, “What is teeba?”, but it left.

The next day the thing came back to ‘Abd’l-Muttalib. It told him, “Go and dig up baara’ (the very blessed thing).” He asked it, “What is barra’?”, but it left.

The third day he went to sleep again and it came to him. It told him, “Go and dig up magnoona (= something that is coveted)?” He asked it, “What is magnoona? ” but it left.

The fourth night when he went to sleep this being came back to him. It told him, “Go and dig up zamzam.” He asked it, “What is zamzam?” It answered, “Zamzam is that thing which will never run out and its water is always abundant. It can give water to the most largest group of people that are visiting (people that are doing hajj). It is between al-farath and ad-dam.” This is a figure of speech of the Arabs to mean something that is very pure. “You will find it. Look for it where you will find ant hills. There you will find many crows pecking there beaks into the ground”.

‘Abd’l-Muttalib goes to this place with his son al-Haarith. They begin digging and unearth certain things. They come across swords made of gold and silver with jewels. Then, they begin to unearth bricks of gold, gold coins, silver coins. Then, they find themselves to be knocking on top of a well.

They begin screaming takbir. People begin to congregate and realize something is going on. They realize that this is the myth of the well. The chieftains of other tribes come up an say, “This is the well of our forefather, Isma’il. Slow down ‘Abd’l-Muttalib. If this is his well, then we all have a right to dig this up.”

This is a source of pride and everyone wants their hands in it. ‘Abd’l-Muttalib says, “This was informed to me directly. I was inspired where this well was. This is my responsibility and I will take care of it.”

He is a very generous and kind man, but he was a wise man. The people continue to fight and argue. They say there is an old man (some narrations say he is a soothsayer) and that man will make the decision between them. They decided to travel to that person. The man lives very far away but still they decided to proceed on.

Some narrations mention that along the way, the people had diminished their water supply and become very thirsty and cannot find any water. People begin to fall ill and they are in a crisis situation. This was a common occurrence for desert-life. The norm was to dig their own graves because they did not wish to put the weight upon another. They don’t want other people to be burdened by the effort to bury them. When they would feel exhaustion, they would lay inside of it and wait for death to come to them. They also don’t want animals to eat their corpse.

Some of them are fading in and out of consciousness. ‘Abd’l-Muttalib passes out for some time, but awakes. He awakes everyone and says that he has a feeling that water is not too far. They all rise and begin to motivates other people to move forward as difficult as it is.

‘Abd’l-Muttalib races forward and when he reaches a spot he kicks his animal so that its feet hit the ground. Water, a stream of water, gushes forth. The people begin digging there and they unearth an amazing well. And so their life were saved.

These people realized that the one who showed him where this well was must have been the one who showed him where the well of zamzam was. They apologized to him because they doubted him. So they believed him and don’t want to fight with him. He was given full custodianship of the well. They return to Makkah. ‘Abd’l-Muttalib and his sons solidify the boundaries of the well and it was established.

He recited some poetry at this point:
O Allaah, You are the King and the One Worthy of Praise
My Lord, My Master, You are the One Who creates and You are the One Who brings back
You are the One Who gives strength and steadfastness and from You comes wealth and from You comes starvation/poverty.
If You wish, You inspire as You will to give that person knowledge of where treasure or wealth is buried.
So today show to me what You wish for me to do.

This was basically his supplication for guidance. This is another evidence used to show that ‘Abd’l-Muttalib was a hanif.

What did he do with the gold and silver? He melted it all and build a door for the Ka’bah from it. He is of the first to adorn the Ka’bah in such an elaborate manner – from his love, respect, and affection for that sacred sanctuary.

Zamzam is part of the recommended practices of hajj and umrah. It stayed under the guardianship of Banu Haashim going from ‘Abd’l-Muttalib to Abu Taalib. They would very seriously, physically and financially serve the hujjaj. They would arrange for the serving and containers for the hujjaj. It was an investment and they would money to accomplish it.

The first year that Abu Taalib was responsible for it, he went bankrupt. We will learn later that he was an amazing man. He was not a wealthy man, but his personality was averse to making extravagant amounts of money. Money was not his main concerns.

In the second year, Abu Taalib went to his brother ‘Abbas and asked for a loan to arrange for the visiting hujjaj. He is given 10 000 silver coins as a loan. He promised to pay back.

In the third year, Abu Taalib again had no money. He again went to his brother ‘Abbas who said that he would take care of the debts, but Abu Taalib was to sell him the rights to the well of zamzam.

Eventually, ‘Abbas accepted Islam and after his death, the responsibility was given to ‘Abdullah b. ‘Abbas, then to ‘Ali b. ‘Abdullah b. ‘Abbas, then to Daw’ud b. ‘Ali, then to Sulayman b. Daw’ud, then to ‘Isa b. Sulayman. Eventually this was inherited by the khalifa, al-Mansur. From there, it was passed between leadership (in the Umayyad dynasty) rather than ancestry.

Well of Zamzam in the olden days

Significances of Zamzam
This is how Ibn Abbas taught us on how to drink zamzam.
1. It will fulfill whatever intention you have (i.e. when drinking it)
2. When you drink it, face the Qiblah, say the name of Allah, drink it in three breaths (not chugging it), drink it to your fill and then praise Allah. The difference between the believers and the hypocrites is that they do not drink to their fill with zamzam.

A difference between belief and hypocrisy is conviction versus skepticism. A believer will believe them for whatever he needs because he has trust that Allaah is true in His promise. That person will be enthusiastic about it and will exhaust all the opportunity. This was a tool the Messenger of Allah gave us to reflect upon our behavior.

3. Imaam al-Bayhaqi rahimahu Allaah mentions that ‘Abd’l-Muttalib said, “O Allaah I do not allow someone to use this for washing themselves.” Even he had the understanding that this water had some spiritual significance to it.
“Rather I permit them to drink it and it is a cure for the one who drinks it.”

4. It was a blessing foretelling the coming of a greater blessing. It was unearthed a few years before the birth of the Messenger of Allah by his very grandfather who not only cared for him, but also named him.
It first came into existence through the legacy of Ibrahim ‘alayhi as-salaam. This minor legacy was a sign of the unearthing of the true and real legacy of Ibrahim ‘alayhi as-salaam – tawhid.

Invasion of the Army of the Elephants
The Messenger of Allah was born in the same year as the year of this invasion. The most substantial of historical accounts says that he was born two months after this invasion.

The Political Landscape
At the time of the Messenger of Allaah’s s birth there was a great amount of political turbulence. Yemen had been very deep in idolatry, but had been impacted by Christianity from the Abyssinians. There had been a Jewish overtaking of the area. Many narrations mention that the incident of ashab’l-ukhdud (mentioned in Surat’l-Buruj) was the incidence of persecution of that time. The Abyssinians were very offended by this and sent an Abyssinian to Yemen, not to conquer the region, but to free the Christian people from tyranny. The land was then to be returned to the oppressed Christian people of Yemen.

When the Christians won their freedom back from the Jews, the ruler was Irbath. Abraha was a general in his army and unsatisfied with his method of ruling. Irbath was first and foremost a Christian and he was ruling over secondly. He did not have a great understanding of economics and political stabilization. He was instead a very devout Christian. Irbath had been put into this position because the situation had been seen as a spiritual uprising.

On the other hand, Abraha was a strategist. He led a coup against Irbath, killed him and overtook the rulership.

Abraha wished to regain the glory and return to the old days of Yemeni glory. The drought and starvation had left the region ravaged. Everyone had gone to Hejaz or Yathrib. Makkah had become the metropolitan center.

Abraha wished to regain the glory for Yemen. He was not a good man by any means. He had killed his own ruler. Note, however, he did not have his eyes set on destructing the Ka’bah initially. Historical accounts by Ibn Kathir rahimahu Allaah indicated that Abraha was a genius and he had a very patient manner with people. Any time he came across the Arabs and their tribes, he would engage in profound discussion with them. This showed what type of a man he was. He listened to ‘Abd’l-Muttalib when he came to visit – he was not a blood thirsty man on a rampage.

Abraha realize that spirituality played a large in people’s lifestyles – even if in a perverted manner. They were not completely apathetic, but they had a lack of respect because of their lack of grounding in tradition. For this reason, Abraha’s Plan A had been to attract business. They have financial issues because the flood has damaged their resources. He needed to attract people to Yemen. He realized people were still very spiritual in their own way. As such there must be a similar
attraction for people (like the Ka’bah). This would attract people to Yemen and bring money to them.

He is a Christian so he builds a big church. He builds a palace of a church and names it Qulays. It put all the resources which were available to the people. He forced his people to build the church so much so that if somebody did not show up to the construction site after the sun had risen, Abraha would cut that person’s hand off. His plan had been to build a place that rivaled the Ka’bah so that people would consider visiting it. From his perspective, he has not done anything wrong.

Then, he sends a message to the Christian Abyssinian King (Najashi). “I have built a church and have dedicated it to you. I want to bring honor and dignity back to our Christian people in this Christian land. I will not rest with the construction of this church until I am able to bring more people here than the number of people who visit the Ka’bah in Makkah.”

The Reaction
Word of his message spreads to the Arabs. Obviously, they are not very happy. A man from Banu Kanana goes to the Qulays, waiting until it has closed and it is dark. Then he defecates in the church. One narration by Ibn Kathir rahimahu Allaah mentions that the man takes the excrement and smears it on the walls.

It is an appalling incident. This is brought to the attention of Abraha and he is upset because this was his personal project. That man in the meanwhile proudly spreads word to people about what he has done.

The Plan for Attack
Abraha takes an oath: “I will not rest until I have destroyed the Ka’bah.” He rallies support, gathers troops. The highest of narrations says he gather 60,000 troops and marches towards Makkah. He did one last thing. Remember that Yemen has that connection to Abyssinia – to Africa. He recruits a man by the name of Unays – an elephant hunter. Like an elephant whisperer. He asks for anywhere between 9-15 elephants. He wants to strike fear into the hearts of the people. People don’t see a lot elephant in their life at that time and they would be afraid with it. The people of Mecca would run all over the place.

We understand it to be a very strategic decision to flatten the land. At the same time, it is fear striking for the hearts of the Arabs because they have never seen anything like it.

Lesson
Abraha was a very arrogant, but he was also a revolutionary and intelligent leader. He is very motivated and driven to live up to the many promises he has made. We know him as the poor, foolish individual who attempted to attack bayt of Allah, but that was not how he began. He was not out-rightly with malicious intent. He became angry because someone else did something wrong. Several people died in defense of the Ka’bah and several people from his own army died. How did he get to the point where he was solely responsible for the death of thousands of people?

It took someone who was immature and foolish and thought that an act of devotion to his own religion was to violate someone else’s religion. Right or wrong, that is secondary. He disrespected someone else’s belief system. He behaved like an animal and that is what drives Abraha mad. History is full of lessons and this is a lesson that disagreeing is a different matter, stating the truth is an obligation, but there is a line that ought not be crossed.

Allaah says in (6:108)

وَلَا تَسُبُّوا الَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ فَيَسُبُّوا اللَّهَ عَدْوًا بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ كَذَٰلِكَ زَيَّنَّا لِكُلِّ أُمَّةٍ عَمَلَهُمْ ثُمَّ إِلَىٰ رَبِّهِم مَّرْجِعُهُمْ فَيُنَبِّئُهُم بِمَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ

And do not insult (say vile things) those who invoke other than Allaah, lest they insult Allaah in enmity (out of retaliation) without knowledge. Thus, we have made pleasing to every community their deeds. Then to their Lord in their return and He will inform them about what they used to do.

You may be cursing something made of wood, but they are disrespecting the Lord of the Worlds because you disrespected their belief system. Look at how linked the Qur’aanic injunction is to incidents even before its revelation and the birth of its Messenger.

May Allaah give us the ability to practice everything that was said and heard.

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